Soil Moisture Monitoring Through UAS-Assisted Internet of Things LoRaWAN Wireless Underground Sensors


In irrigated agriculture, there is a growing need for technologies that facilitate water conservation and environmental stewardship due to the growing usage and demand for the global freshwater supply. Recent demonstrations of Internet of Things (IoT) sensors have highlighted the value of wireless soil moisture content sensors. This can be seen as a step in the right direction. However, existing wireless solutions frequently involve the use of above-ground wireless Communication modules, which cause a disruption to the physical activities that are normally associated with farming. The significant radio-frequency (RF) propagation loss that occurs through soil poses a significant obstacle for the development of underground wireless network solutions. The purpose of this paper is to present a method that gets around both of these issues by using Internet of Things sensors and Communication modules that are completely buried underground in conjunction with LoRaWAN gateways that are mounted on uncrewed aircraft systems. The LoRaWAN gateway that is mounted on the UAS removes the requirement for any in-field base stations and also makes it possible for LoRa-enabled sensors to transmit data over short distances while using very little energy. This strategy was put to the test in the field, and the results served as proof that the concept is sound. The received signal strength indicator (RSSI) demonstrates that the proposed solution has a significantly larger Communication range than is required for reliable operation. This indicates that the proposed solution has a better Communication link margin than is required for reliable operation. In addition, this solution is simple to construct, scalable, economical, and can be applied in a way that minimizes the amount of power consumed during its implementation.

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