Low-Power Wide-Area Networks: A Broad Overview of Its Different Aspects


Low-power wide-area networks, also known as LPWANs, are becoming increasingly popular in the field of research due to the fact that they use a relatively small amount of power, are inexpensive, and can cover a large area. LPWAN technologies are superior to short-range and traditional cellular wireless technologies in a variety of applications. These applications include the development of smart cities, machine-to-machine (M2M) Communications, healthcare, intelligent transportation, industrial applications, climate-smart agriculture, and asset tracking. LPWAN technologies also complement and outperform traditional cellular wireless technologies. Within the scope of this review paper, low-power wide area networks, or LPWANs, are analyzed in terms of their design goals and the methodologies they employ to provide extensive coverage for low-power devices. In addition to this, we investigate how the presented LPWAN architecture makes use of a variety of topologies including star and mesh. We investigate a wide range of existing and developing LPWAN technologies, in addition to their system architectures and standards, and assess the extent to which they can fulfill the requirements of each design objective. The current overview investigates and reports on the possible coexistence of LPWAN with other technologies, with the goal of providing an optimal solution by combining the most advantageous characteristics of each of these technologies. After that, a comparison of the various low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies is carried out, and the market opportunities presented by those technologies are also investigated. In addition to this, an examination of a number of different use cases for LPWAN is carried out, with the advantages and disadvantages of each being discussed. This helps in determining which LPWAN technology is the most suitable for a given set of applications. Before coming to a conclusion on the work, the open research issues as well as the difficulties in designing LPWAN are presented.

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