A Novel Architectural Framework on IoT Ecosystem, Security Aspects and Mechanisms: A Comprehensive Survey


Over the course of the last few years, the Internet of Things (IoT) technology has not only been growing in popularity and significance, but it has also witnessed the actualization of the concept that everything can be made intelligent. The Internet of Things (IoT) has emerged as a field with enormous potential and incredible growth since the introduction of the idea of "smart everything." The innovation mindset is at the heart of an ecosystem for the Internet of Things (IoT), which is why it is often referred to as the ecosystem's fundamental core. Therefore, the Internet of Things enabling technologies, such as hardware and software platforms as well as standards, become the core of the Internet of Things ecosystem. However, the challenge of ensuring secure data transmission is posed by any large-scale technological integration, such as the development of the Internet of Things (IoT). It's possible that the pervasiveness of Internet of Things devices, combined with the fact that their resources are limited, as well as the fact that IoT systems generate sensitive and private data, makes them exceptionally susceptible to both physical and digital attacks. In this paper, we take a look at the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem from the perspective of its core technologies. We propose a revised three-layer Internet of Things architecture, in which the perception layer is broken down into elementary blocks according to the functions that are attributed to each block. Under each layer of the proposed architecture is a classification system that organizes enabling technologies, attack vectors, and countermeasures for security. In addition, in order to provide the readers with a more comprehensive understanding of the research area, we discuss the role that a variety of cutting-edge emerging technologies play in the security of the internet of things (IoT). We present the security aspects of the most prominent standards and other recently developed technologies for the Internet of Things that might have the potential to form the as of yet undefined Internet of Things architecture. These standards and technologies were developed relatively recently. One of the more recent Internet of Things (IoT) technologies is the focus of our attention with regard to this article's presentation of various technologies. This innovative technology is known as IQRF, which stands for Intelligent Connectivity through the Use of Radio Frequency. It is a developing technology for wireless packet-oriented Communication that operates in the sub-GHz ISM band (868 MHz) and is designed for general use wherever wireless connectivity is required, either in a mesh network or in a point-to-point (P2P) configuration. This technology is intended for use in environments where there is a need for general use. In addition, we discussed the various security features that are incorporated into this technology and contrasted it with other technologies that are already well-known. In addition to that, a comprehensive analysis of the potential attacks is provided here. The Internet of Things technologies, including IQRF, are anticipated to come under attack as a result of these attacks. In addition, lightweight security solutions that have been implemented in these technologies are presented as a means of combating these threats within the framework of the proposed IoT ecosystem architecture. In the final part of this article, we will summarize the survey by providing a list of some of the more widespread challenges and potential future research directions in this area.

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