PROJECT TITLE :
A Comprehensive and Accurate Analytical SPAD Model for Circuit Simulation
The single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is an engaging photosensor due to its high sensitivity and low dead time. During this paper, a comprehensive, correct analytical SPAD circuit simulation model is proposed and implemented in Verilog-A hardware description language. It shows nice application universality and is totally compatible with mainstream industrial circuit simulators. This model incorporates all important operating options of the SPAD. Most importantly, to the simplest of our information, it is the primary time that the band-to-band tunneling mechanism and also the temporal dependence of once-pulsing probability are included in an SPAD circuit simulation model. The parameter extraction processes from interavalanche time measurement of a free-running SPAD device are mentioned. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model works well. Also, the primary dark counts from the model are validated against the measurement results. A most relative error of eight.seven% is observed at twenty °C with an excess voltage of zero.five V. The accuracy of this paper can be greatly improved by using additional accurate physical parameters on the market from the SPAD fabrication vendor.
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