Analysis of Spectrum Sensing and Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks with Heterogeneous Traffic and p-Retry Buffering


It is common knowledge that the applications of cognitive radio (CR) have a significant amount of untapped potential to address the issue of limited radio spectrum. The spectrum sensing technique is an essential component that makes it possible for unlicensed secondary users (SUs) to make use of spectrum holes in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). Nevertheless, a licensed primary user (PU) can be adequately protected by simultaneously performing spectrum sensing and data transmission—that is, by utilizing full-duplex (FD) mode. This is the method that is referred to as "full duplex." In this article, we propose and investigate a strategy that makes use of both spectrum sensing mechanisms and spectrum access mechanisms simultaneously. We take into account the heterogeneous traffic that consists of both real-time and non-real-time SUs based on the varying delay tolerance characteristics of each type. We discuss the problem of the false alarm rate, also known as the FAR, which is associated with FD sensing. Spectrum handoff and call buffering strategies, along with the p-Retry policy, are used in conjunction with one another so that SUs that would otherwise be blocked or forcibly dropped can instead be buffered and possibly served at a later time. The five-dimensional continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) model and the queueing-theoretic approach are developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. The performance of such CRNs is shown to be impacted by spectrum sensing errors, as demonstrated by the numerical results. The results also show that the provision of buffers as part of the retrial policy results in an increase in the overall network resource utilization while simultaneously reducing the likelihood of blocking and dropping.

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