Measurement Errors in Range-Based Localization Algorithms for UAVs: Analysis and Experimentation


The ability to precisely locate ground devices (GDs) is essential for a wide range of different applications, including, but not limited to, the monitoring of infrastructure, precision agriculture, and search and rescue missions, to name just a few. Because of their adaptability, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, represent a potentially useful form of aircraft technology. However, the accuracy of the localization process is negatively impacted by the distance measurements that are carried out with the help of a drone because these measurements are prone to a number of errors. In this article, we provide analytical expressions for the impact that various types of measurement errors have on the ground distance that separates the UAV and the GDs. We examine three range-based localization algorithms as well as three range-free localization algorithms, determine the error sources for each, and analytically derive the error bounds that come about as a result of aggregating multiple inaccurate measurements. After that, we improve the accuracy of the range-free algorithms by extending them. After collecting data from a testbed that consisted of ten ground devices (GDs) and one drone, all of which were fitted with ultra wide band (UWB) antennas and flown in an open field, we validated our theoretical analysis and compared the observed localization error of the algorithms. The findings indicate that our analysis has a high degree of congruence with the experimental localization errors. In addition, the accuracy of the extended range-free algorithms is significantly improved in comparison to that of their original counterparts.

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