A Narrow Beam Steering Antenna Array for Indoor Positioning Systems Based on Wireless Sensor Network


The 2.45 GHz planar beam steering antenna array for indoor positioning systems is a solution that is proposed in this paper. An array of four dipole Yagi antennas and a phase shifter based on a 4x4 Butler matrix are the two components that make up the antenna array. The main beam of the antenna can be steered in four directions, ranging from +37 degrees to -36 degrees and from +12 degrees to +37 degrees by using a switching controller to select which of four beams to use. The antenna has a narrow fan beam with a beamwidth in the azimuth plane of from +21.5 degrees to +24.5 degrees and in the elevation plane of approximately 90 degrees, which effectively minimizes multipath signals. The beamwidth in the azimuth plane is measured from +21.5 degrees to +24.5 degrees. These benefits are ideal for positioning systems, which can use them to improve their location accuracy. The antenna has the capability of reaching peak gains of 9.1 to 9.8 dBi in all four cardinal directions across a frequency range of 400 MHz. The prototype of the fully electronically steerable antenna has been designed with the help of CST software, simulated using the finite element method, fabricated on the RO4003C substrate, and measured. The antenna is implemented in the Indoor Positioning System using three different location methods, including trilateration, triangulation, and fingerprinting, to highlight the antenna's advantages in improving location accuracy with the ratio between the mean location error and area of 0.051, 0.033, and 0.023 respectively. This is done to highlight the antenna's advantages in improving location accuracy with the ratio between the mean location error and area of 0.051.

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