A Frequency-Time Synchronization Scheme for Real-Time Wireless Sensor Networks


In a real-time wireless sensor network (RT-WSN), it is generally unfortunate if the synchronization (or connection) process between nodes takes an unpredictable amount of time to complete, even though the Communication that occurs after the connection may be under the user's direct control. This kind of travesty, which is based on the multiple-request-single occasion, is what this paper is all about trying to solve (multiple slave nodes request to send data to a single master node simultaneously before getting synchronized using the frequency channel hopping technique). Imagine that the master is the one who transmits the synchronization packet (also known as the beacon), and that the slaves are the ones responsible for searching across various channels in order to establish a connection. It is referred to as frequency and time synchronization, which is abbreviated as FTS. When a slave is synchronized with the master, it indicates that both nodes have just selected an identical frequency channel during a time region and that the slave has successfully received the synchronization packet in this time region. If many of the currently available wireless protocols were to be directly adopted in this scenario, there would be two shortcomings with regard to the real-time performances: To begin, the amount of time that must pass before a slave can be added to the network is frequently not deterministic if one or more channels are being disrupted. Second, when multiple slaves perform their scanning at the same time, it is impossible to predict which slave will be the first to synchronize with the master. This means that a slave with a lower priority may be serviced before any of the other slaves. In the beginning of this paper, there are two examples of FTS that have subpar performance when measured in real time. After that, a synchronization technique known as 1/ $2n FTS is demonstrated and demonstrated to work. In this approach, a slave uses $n distinct available channels to perform repeated scans in the hopes of locating the master's synchronization packet. This process is repeated until the slave is successful in locating the packet, while the master sends the packet $2n times during $2n continuous time slots. It takes up twice as much space as the slot does for the salve's scan window to display its full width. Even if one or more channels are disrupted rather than all of them, every slave will still have the opportunity to become synchronized with the master at the conclusion of the n slots if they are set up in this manner. The slaves will then be able to send their requests to the master in the appropriate time slots, allowing the master to schedule subsequent Communications in accordance with the slaves' requests and the importance they place on those requests. Additionally, if the master broadcasts the beacon on a regular basis, it is not difficult to estimate the amount of time it will take for a slave to join or re-join the master. Experiments conducted with NORDIC Semiconductor chips are used to demonstrate the theorems that are associated with the 1/ $2n FTS method.

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