An Improved Equal Hierarchical Cluster-Based Routing Protocol for EH-WSNs to Enhance Balanced Utilization of Harvested Energy


The primary challenges in developing routing protocols for energy harvesting wireless sensor networks are optimizing the use of collected energy and striking a balance between the amount of collected energy and the amount of energy consumed (EH-WSNs). In this paper, we discuss the efficient hierarchical cluster-based routing method for enhancing harvested energy utilization while ensuring harvested energy consumption balancing, reliability, and connectivity of EH-WSNs. This method can help increase harvested energy utilization by a significant amount. A new hierarchical cluster-based routing protocol for EH-WSNs has been proposed in order to accomplish these goals. This protocol is divided into two stages: the first is the establishment of the cluster route, and the second is the transmission of data. Multiple criteria, including residual energy, distance to the base station (BS), node adjacency degree, link statistics, and energy harvesting rate of nodes, are considered during the cluster-route establishment phase. This phase includes the selection of the CH, the selection of the next-hop CH, and the joining of CMs to a proper CH. In addition, a modified sensing radius adjustment scheme has been implemented in order to further improve the overall balance of the energy consumed by each node from the sensing time. An adaptive transmission power adjustment scheme is proposed to be used during the data transmission phase in order to make more effective use of harvested energy, taking into consideration both the current residual energy and the predicted energy harvested from the ambient environment. Utilizing a mobile sink, this phase contributes further to the improvement of the energy consumption balance. Extensive simulations are carried out in order to provide evidence that the proposed protocol is capable of achieving higher levels of network performance compared to the other protocols already in use for EH-WSNs.

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