Closed-Loop Asynchronous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Prolongs Functional Movements in the Lower Body


Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is usually employed in rehabilitative settings and is also used for assistive purposes to create functional movements, where it's termed useful electrical stimulation (FES). One limitation of NMES/FES is early onset of muscle fatigue. NMES-induced fatigue can be reduced by switching between multiple stimulation channels that concentrate on totally different motor units or synergistic muscles (i.e., asynchronous stimulation). However, switching stimulation channels introduces further complexity due to the necessity to think about the switching dynamics and differing muscle response to stimulation. The target of this study was to develop and check a closed-loop controller for asynchronous stimulation. The developed closed-loop controller yields asymptotic tracking of a desired trajectory for someone’s knee-shank complicated despite switching between stimulation channels. The developed controller was implemented on four in a position-bodied people with four-channel asynchronous stimulation furthermore single-channel typical stimulation. The results indicate that asynchronous stimulation extends the duration that practical movements will be performed during feedback management. This result's promising for the implementation of asynchronous stimulation in closed-loop rehabilitative procedures and in assistive devices as a technique to scale back muscle fatigue whereas maintaining a person's ability to track a desired limb trajectory.

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