Performance of Multi-Hop Cooperative Networks Subject to Timing Synchronization Errors


In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for timing synchronization errors in an exceedingly cascaded virtual multi-hop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system that includes cooperation at every hop using decode-and-forward (DF) algorithm. Specifically, the DF relays are grouped to make clusters and one cluster transmits the same knowledge to the next cluster over orthogonal fading channels. The proposed error model is employed to study the statistics of the timing error from one cluster to the next and it's been shown that the variance of the timing errors gradually will increase as the information traverse the multi-hop network. The effects of the timing errors on the bit error likelihood (BEP) performance of the system have been quantified. For that purpose, the closed-kind expressions of the BEP for the network are derived for each hop with a explicit variety of nodes per hop. The results indicate that the BEP performance of the system degrades as the information propagates from hop to hop. We tend to quantify the minimum needed SNR and also the optimal variety of relays per cluster that guarantee successful traversal of knowledge to a specified variety of hop whereas keeping overall BEP below a outlined threshold.

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