Heterogeneous Vehicular Networking: A Survey on Architecture, Challenges, and Solutions


With the speedy development of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), vehicular communication networks are widely studied in recent years. Dedicated Short Vary Communication (DSRC) can provide economical real-time data exchange among vehicles while not the necessity of pervasive roadside communication infrastructure. Although mobile cellular networks are capable of providing wide coverage for vehicular users, the wants of services that require stringent real-time safety cannot continually be guaranteed by cellular networks. So, the Heterogeneous Vehicular NETwork (HetVNET), that integrates cellular networks with DSRC, may be a potential resolution for meeting the communication needs of the ITS. Though there are a plethora of reported studies on either DSRC or cellular networks, joint research of these 2 areas remains at its infancy. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on recent wireless networks techniques applied to HetVNETs. Firstly, the requirements and use cases of safety and non-safety services are summarized and compared. Consequently, a HetVNET framework that utilizes a selection of wireless networking techniques is presented, followed by the descriptions of varied applications for a few typical scenarios. Building such HetVNETs requires a deep understanding of heterogeneity and its associated challenges. So, major challenges and solutions that are related to both the Medium Access Management (MAC) and network layers in HetVNETs are studied and discussed well. Finally, we outline open problems that help to spot new research directions in HetVNETs.

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