Enhanced Frequency Regulation Using Multilevel Energy Storage in Remote Area Power Supply Systems


RAPS systems with a high percentage of renewable power generation require frequency assistance from renewable power generators in order to maintain a stable frequency. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) cannot participate in frequency management because of traditional control tactics and the random nature of wind resources. Ultracapacitors (UC) and lead-acid batteries (LABs) are proposed to be used as hybrid energy storage in a PMSG in order to offer frequency support. Conventional inertial response is emulated by the UCs, while automatic governor reaction is mimicked by the LABs (i.e., primary frequency response). System frequency can be restored utilising mechanical power saved in wind turbines using a suboptimal maximum power point tracking approach (i.e., secondary frequency response). Control measures that can aid primary and secondary frequency response are also provided for both the UCs and LABs. The frequency response given by the multilevel energy storage has been validated through simulation and experimental testing. In order to maintain the RAPS system frequency while preventing frequent charging and discharging of the LABs and substantial mechanical/electromagnetic stress on the WECS, a multi-level energy storage solution is necessary.

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