A Decentralized Control Architecture applied to DC Nanogrid Clusters


Because of their scalability and resource sharing features, bottom-up DC microgrids are becoming increasingly attractive for swarm electrification. Stable and coordinated operation, however, necessitates the use of more advanced Control Systems requiring Communication among the scattered resources. Here, we describe a decentralised control technique for a photovoltaic (PV)/battery-based highly distributed dc microgrid that is Communication-free. It comprises of groups of nanogrids, each of which can function autonomously while still sharing resources with the rest of the community. As a result of local assessments of state of charge and dc bus voltage, a coordinated power sharing among the contributing nanogrids is achieved. Through a local controller, the PV generation capacity of each nanogrid is timed to match grid stability circumstances. The controller can switch modes of operation between measuring the maximum power point and controlling the current. The distributed architecture with the suggested decentralised control method allows 1) scalability and modularity in the structure, 2) improved distribution efficiency, and 3) Communication-less, yet coordinated resource sharing to be achieved through the distributed architecture. The Microgrid Laboratory at Aalborg University uses simulations on MATLAB/Simulink and hardware-in-the-loop technologies to test the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for several probable power-sharing scenarios.

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