Cross-Layer Aided Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Routing in Ad Hoc Networks - 2014


Most of the nodes in ad hoc networks rely on batteries, which requires energy saving. Hence, numerous energy-efficient routing algorithms have been proposed for solving this problem. In this paper, we exploit the benefits of cross-layer information exchange, such as the knowledge of the Frame Error Rate (FER) in the physical layer, the maximum number of retransmissions in the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer and the number of relays in the network layer. Energy-consumption-based Objective Functions (OF) are invoked for calculating the end-to-end energy consumption of each potentially available route for both Traditional Routing (TR) and for our novel Opportunistic Routing (OR), respectively. We also improve the TR and the OR with the aid of efficient Power Allocation (PA) for further reducing the energy consumption. For the TR, we take into account the dependencies amongst the links of a multi-hop route, which facilitates a more accurate performance evaluation than upon assuming the links that are independent. Moreover, two energy-efficient routing algorithms are designed based on Dijkstra's algorithm. The algorithms based on the energy OF provide the theoretical bounds, which are shown to be close to the bound found from exhaustive search, despite the significantly reduced complexity of the former. Finally, the end-to-end throughput and the end-to-end delay of this system are analyzed theoretically and a new technique of characterizing the delay distribution of OR is proposed. The simulation results show that our energy-efficient OR outperforms the TR and that their theoretical analysis accurately matches the simulation results.

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