Modeling and Estimation of Transient Carrier Frequency Offset in Wireless Transceivers (2014)


Future wireless devices have to support many applications (e.g., remote robotics, wireless automation, and mobile gaming) with extremely low latency and reliability requirements over wireless connections. Optimizing wireless transceivers while switching between wireless connections with different circuit characteristics requires addressing many hardware impairments that have been overlooked previously. For instance, switching between transmission and reception radio functions to facilitate time-division duplexing can change the load on the power supply. As the supply voltage changes in response to the sudden change in load, the carrier frequency drifts. Such a drift results in transient carrier frequency offset (CFO) that cannot be estimated by conventional CFO estimators and is typically addressed by inserting or extending guard intervals. In this paper, we explore the modeling and estimation of the transient CFO, which is modeled as the response of an underdamped second order system. To compensate for the transient CFO, we propose a low complexity parametric estimation algorithm, which uses the null space of the Hankel-like matrix constructed from phase difference of the two halves of the repetitive training sequence. Furthermore, to minimize the mean squared error of the estimated parameters in noise, a weighted subspace fitting algorithm is derived with a slight increase in complexity. The Crámer-Rao bound for any unbiased estimator of the transient CFO parameters is derived. The performance of the proposed algorithms is also confirmed by the experimental results obtained from the real wireless transceivers.

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