A Survey of Fingerprint-Based Outdoor Localization


A growing range of sensors on sensible mobile devices has led to fast development of varied mobile applications using location-primarily based or context-aware services. Usually, out of doors localization techniques have relied on GPS or on cellular infrastructure support. Whereas GPS provides high positioning accuracy, it can quickly deplete the battery on the device. On the opposite hand, base station primarily based localization has low accuracy. In search of other techniques for outside localization, several approaches have explored the utilization of information gathered from different accessible sensors, like accelerometer, microphone, compass, and even daily patterns of usage, to identify distinctive signatures that may find a device. Signatures, or fingerprints of an area, are hidden cues existing around a user's setting. However, underneath different operating situations, fingerprint-primarily based localization techniques have variable performance in terms of accuracy, latency of detection, battery usage. The main contribution of this survey is to present a classification of existing fingerprint-primarily based localization approaches that intelligently sense and match different clues from the environment for location identification. We tend to describe how every fingerprinting technique works, followed by a review of the merits and demerits of the systems built based mostly on these techniques. We tend to conclude by identifying several enhancements and application domain for fingerprinting based mostly localization.

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