A Blockchain Footprint for Authentication of IoT-Enabled Smart Devices in Smart Cities: State-of-the-Art Advancements, Challenges and Future Research Directions


The mechanisms that are based on distributed environments have emerged as a clear option for finding solutions, despite the fact that they have not been restricted to a particular field (i.e., crypto-currency). Instead, it has influenced other industries to develop robust solutions for protecting privacy and security, such as smart homes, smart electrical grids, smart agriculture, smart health care, smart transportation, and so on. These Cyber-Physical Systems are extremely reliant on Internet of Things-based smart devices, which together make up a networked system of devices that are mutually dependent on one another for the system as a whole to function normally. As a result, security and privacy have evolved into fundamental components of each and every architectural framework in which they are implemented. The implementation of these architectures, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Cyber-Physical Things (IoCPT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), and Internet of Everything (IoE), has increased the necessity of developing solutions that are based on a distributed environment. The distributed ledger technology known as Blockchain has taken the lead and may be able to support the development of more robust solutions for protecting users' privacy and security. In this article, we present an updated review of authentication mechanisms that have been developed on Blockchain technology and that enforce decentralized architectures. Concerning the authentication of these Internet of Things-enabled smart devices, we go over some of the security concerns that have been raised. The study of the proposed literature schemes that pose authentication challenges in terms of computational costs, Communication overheads, and models applied to attain robustness are evaluated and analyzed by us. These schemes include: Because of this, it is absolutely necessary to have lightweight solutions for managing, maintaining, processing, and storing authentication data of IoT-enabled assets. The use of Cloud Computing has proven to be of great assistance from an integration point of view. On the other hand, decentralized ledger technology, such as Blockchain, and lightweight cryptosystems are the areas that need significantly more investigation. In conclusion, we talk about the challenges that lie ahead for future research, which present an opportunity for improvement and can help clarify some of the ambiguities.

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