Butler–Volmer-Equation-Based Electrical Model for High-Power Lithium Titanate Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles


The lithium titanate battery, which uses Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO) as its anode instead of graphite, is a promising candidate for fast charging and power assist vehicular applications thanks to its enticing battery performance in rate characteristics and chemical stability. Unfortunately, commonly used battery models, as well as a massive number of enhanced electrical models, become problematic when describing current–voltage characteristics of lithium titanate batteries. In this paper, a novel Butler–Volmer equation-based electrical model is utilized to outline unique phenomena induced by changing rates for top-power lithium titanate batteries. The robustness of the proposed model for three types of lithium titanate batteries under varying loading conditions, together with galvanostatic check and Federal Urban Dynamic Schedule take a look at, is evaluated and compared against experimental information. The experimental results of three varieties of lithium titanate batteries with common anode materials but differentiated cathode materials show smart agreement with the model estimation results with most voltage errors below 2%.

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