Fifty Years of MIMO Detection: The Road to Large-Scale MIMOs


The rising huge/massive-scale multiple-input multiple-output (LS-MIMO) systems that depend upon terribly large antenna arrays have become a hot topic of wireless Communications. Compared to multi-antenna aided systems being built at the time of this writing, like the long-term evolution (LTE) based fourth generation (4G) mobile Communication system which allows for up to eight antenna parts at the base station (BS), the LS-MIMO system entails an unprecedented number of antennas, say 100 or more, at the BS. The huge leap in the quantity of BS antennas opens the door to a new research field in Communication theory, propagation and electronics, where random matrix theory begins to play a dominant role. Interestingly, LS-MIMOs additionally represent a good example of 1 of the key philosophical principles of the Hegelian Dialectics, namely, that “quantitative change leads to qualitative change.” In this treatise, we give a recital on the historic heritages and novel challenges facing LS-MIMOs from a detection perspective. 1st, we tend to highlight the basics of MIMO detection, together with the nature of co-channel interference (CCI), the generality of the MIMO detection problem, the received signal models of each linear memoryless MIMO channels and dispersive MIMO channels exhibiting memory, moreover because the complicated-valued versus real-valued MIMO system models. Then, an intensive review of the representative MIMO detection strategies conceived throughout the past 50 years (1965–2015) is presented, and relevant insights along with lessons are inferred for the sake of planning complexity-scalable MIMO detection algorithms that are doubtless applicable to LS-MIMO systems. Furthermore, we divide the LS-MIMO systems into 2 types, and elaborate on the distinct detection ways suitable for every of them. The type-I LS-MIMO corresponds to the case where the number of active users is a lot of smaller than the number of BS antennas, which is currently the mainstream- definition of LS-MIMO. The type-II LS-MIMO corresponds to the case where the amount of active users is comparable to the number of BS antennas. Finally, we discuss the applicability of existing MIMO detection algorithms in LS-MIMO systems, and review a number of the recent advances in LS-MIMO detection.

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