Improving Performance by Doping Gadolinium Into the Indium-Tin–Oxide Electrode in HfO2-Based Resistive Random Access Memory


This letter investigates the characteristics of doping gadolinium (Gd) in an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode in HfO2-based resistive random access memory (RRAM). Identical bottom electrodes and insulators were created but then capped by either pure ITO or a Gd:ITO high electrode. Doping Gd within the ITO electrode produces lower operation currents in each high-resistance state (HRS) and low-resistance state (LRS) plus enlarging the memory window. This glorious performance suggests a outstanding potential to enhance RRAM applications. Schottky emission mechanism dominates both HRS and LRS in step with current fitting results, and is confirmed by temperature effect experiments. The resistive switching behavior of the Gd:ITO device is explained by our model and is additionally confirmed by material analysis and electrical measurements. Furthermore, reliability tests verify the Gd:ITO device’s capability to perform data storage as a nonvolatile memory.

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