Secure distance-primarily based localization within the presence of cheating beacon (or anchor) nodes is a vital problem in mobile wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. Despite vital research efforts during this direction, some elementary questions still remain unaddressed: Within the presence of cheating beacon nodes, what are the required and sufficient conditions to guarantee a bounded error throughout a two-dimensional distance-based location estimation? Under these necessary and sufficient conditions, what category of localization algorithms will provide this error certain? During this paper, we have a tendency to attempt to answer these and alternative connected queries by following a careful analytical approach. Specifically, we have a tendency to first show that when the number of cheating beacon nodes is larger than or equal to a given threshold, there don't exist any two-dimensional distance-based localization algorithms that can guarantee a bounded error. Furthermore, when the quantity of cheating beacons is below this threshold, we tend to determine a category of distance-based localization algorithms that can perpetually guarantee a bounded localization error. Finally, we outline 3 novel distance-based mostly localization algorithms that belong to the present class of bounded error localization algorithms. We verify their accuracy and efficiency by means that of intensive simulation experiments using each easy and sensible distance estimation error models.
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