Energy-Aware Dual-Path Geographic Routing to Bypass Routing Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks - 2018


Geographic routing has been considered as an engaging approach for resource-constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) since it exploits local location data instead of world topology data to route data. However, this routing approach usually suffers from the routing hole (i.e., an area freed from nodes in the direction nearer to destination) in numerous environments such as buildings and obstacles throughout data delivery, ensuing in route failure. Currently, existing geographic routing protocols tend to run along solely one facet of the routing holes to recover the route, so achieving suboptimal network performance such as longer delivery delay and lower delivery ratio. Furthermore, these protocols cannot guarantee that all packets are delivered in an energy-efficient manner once encountering routing holes. In this Project, we target addressing these issues and propose an energy-aware twin-path geographic routing (EDGR) protocol for better route recovery from routing holes. EDGR adaptively utilizes the placement data, residual energy, and also the characteristics of energy consumption to make routing decisions, and dynamically exploits 2 node-disjoint anchor lists, passing through two sides of the routing holes, to shift routing path for load balance. Moreover, we extend EDGR into threedimensional (3D) sensor networks to produce energy-aware routing for routing hole detour. Simulation results demonstrate that EDGR exhibits higher energy potency, and has moderate performance enhancements on network lifetime, packet delivery ratio, and delivery delay, compared to different geographic routing protocols in WSNs over a variety of Communication eventualities passing through routing holes. The proposed EDGR is abundant applicable to resource-constrained WSNs with routing holes.

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