We present a blind speech watermarking algorithm that embeds the watermark data in the phase of non-voicedspeech by replacing the excitation signal of an autoregressive speech signal representation. The watermark signal is embedded in a frequency subband, which facilitates robustness against bandpass filtering channels. We derive several sets of pulse shapes that prevent intersymbol interference and that allow the passband watermark signal to be created by simple filtering. A marker-based synchronization scheme robustly detects the location of the embedded watermark data without the occurrence of insertions or deletions. In light of a potential application to analog aeronautical voice radio communication, we present experimental results for embedding a watermark in narrowband speech at a bit-rate of 450 bit/s. The recursive least-squares (RLS) equalization-based watermark detector not only compensates for the vocal tract filtering, but also recovers the watermark data in the presence of nonlinear phase and bandpass filtering, amplitude modulation, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), making the watermarking scheme highly robust.
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