The Block Propagation in Blockchain-based Vehicular Networks


Because it is a process that is required to reach an agreement between a group of separated nodes that do not trust each other in a decentralized framework, consensus is one of the most important issues of a Blockchain system. This is because a Blockchain is a decentralized framework. The majority of the currently implemented Blockchain consensus protocols operate under the assumption that the amount of time spent on block propagation between geographically separated nodes during the consensus process is irrelevant. This means that it is assumed that a block will always successfully reach every participating node within a period of time that is significantly shorter than the amount of time spent mining. However, when Blockchain technology is implemented in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the block propagation time is no longer negligible. This is because the dynamic connectivity of the moving nodes in a wireless environment allows for opportunistic Communication to contribute to Blockchain consensus. In this article, we study the impact that mobility has on block propagation in VANET, specifically in the context of the single-chain structure. In particular, we investigate the dynamics of block propagation from a macroscopic viewpoint and derive the closed-form expression of the time required for a single block to propagate. The splitting of the Blockchain is then referred to as the multiblock competitive propagation. An approximate result on the amount of time required for multiblock propagation is discussed in this manner. The discovery that increased mobility and a greater number of vehicles in motion can speed up the block's propagation is an intriguing one. In addition, we find that the unique propagation capabilities of moving nodes contribute to a reduction in the amount of forking that occurs during the consensus process of the Blockchain.

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