Development of Underwater Short-Range Sensor Using Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation


In this paper, we tend to discuss a completely unique underwater short-range sensor using electromagnetic (EM) wave attenuation. We have a tendency to use the revised Friis–Shelkunoff formula to calculate the EM wave attenuation underwater as a function of distance. This requires knowledge of the antenna gain underwater, which is terribly different from the gain in air, and additionally the attenuation constant that depends on the water conductivity. We have a tendency to calibrated the gain and attenuation during a ranging experiment and also during a 2-D localization experiment. Both methods agreed, confirming that in situ calibration of a two-D localization experiment is possible. The localization results show smart accuracy, validating the sensor model and showing that multipath effects will be created negligible in such an experiment.

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