Analysis and Simple Circuit Design of Double Differential EMG Active Electrode


During this paper we tend to gift an analysis of the voltage amplifier needed for double differential (DD) sEMG measurements and a completely unique, terribly simple circuit for implementing DD active electrodes. The three-input amplifier that standalone DD active electrodes require is inherently totally different from a differential amplifier, and general knowledge about its style is scarce in the literature. First, the figures of advantage of the amplifier are defined through a decomposition of its input signal into three orthogonal modes. This analysis reveals a mode containing EMG crosstalk parts that the DD electrode ought to reject. Then, the result of finite input impedance is analyzed. Because there are three terminals, minimum bounds for interference rejection ratios thanks to electrode and input impedance unbalances with two degrees of freedom are obtained. Finally, a novel circuit style is presented, including only a quadruple operational amplifier and a few passive elements. This design is almost as straightforward as the branched electrode and much less complicated than the three instrumentation amplifier design, whereas providing strong EMG crosstalk rejection and higher input impedance using unity gain buffers for every electrode input. The interference rejection limits of this input stage are analyzed. An simply replicable implementation of the proposed circuit is described, along with a parameter style guideline to adjust it to specific desires. The electrode is compared with the established alternatives, and sample sEMG signals are obtained, acquired on completely different body locations with dry contacts, successfully rejecting interference sources.

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