Spatial and Temporal Model of Electric Vehicle Charging Demand


This paper presents a spatial and temporal model of electric vehicle charging demand for a rapid charging station located near a highway exit. Most previous studies have assumed a fixed charging location and fixed charging time during the off-peak hours for anticipating electric vehicle charging demand. Some other studies have based on limited charging scenarios at typical locations instead of a mathematical model. Therefore, from a distribution system perspective, electric vehicle charging demand is still unidentified quantity which may vary by space and time. In this context, this study proposes a mathematical model of electric vehicle charging demand for a rapid charging station. The mathematical model is based on the fluid dynamic traffic model and the M/M/s queueing theory. Firstly, the arrival rate of discharged vehicles at a charging station is predicted by the fluid dynamic model. Then, charging demand is forecasted by the M/M/s queueing theory with the arrival rate of discharged vehicles. This mathematical model of charging demand may allow grid's distribution planners to anticipate a charging demand profile at a charging station. A numerical example shows that the proposed model is able to capture the spatial and temporal dynamics of charging demand in a highway charging station.

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