Design Principles for Energy-Efficient Legged Locomotion and Implementation on the MIT Cheetah Robot


This paper presents the design principles for highly economical legged robots, the implementation of the principles in the planning of the MIT Cheetah, and also the analysis of the high-speed trotting experimental results. The look principles were derived by analyzing three major energy-loss mechanisms in locomotion: heat losses from the actuators, friction losses in transmission, and also the interaction losses caused by the interface between the system and therefore the environment. Four design principles that minimize these losses are mentioned: employment of high torque-density motors, energy regenerative electronic system, low loss transmission, and a low leg inertia. These principles were implemented in the look of the MIT Cheetah; the foremost style features are large gap diameter motors, regenerative electric motor drivers, single-stage low gear transmission, dual coaxial motors with composite legs, and the differential actuated spine. The experimental results of fast trotting are presented; the 33-kg robot runs at twenty two km/h (half-dozen m/s). The whole power consumption from the battery pack was 973 W and resulted during a total value of transport of zero.five, which rivals running animals' at the identical scale. seventy six% of the overall energy consumption is attributed to heat loss from the motor, and also the remaining 24% is employed in mechanical work, that is dissipated as interaction loss also friction losses at the joint and transmission.

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