Design and Evaluation of an Open-Loop Receiver for TWSTFT Applications


The two-manner satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) technique provides uncertainty at the nanosecond level for time variations measured over an intercontinental baseline. The time-distinction results sometimes reveal daily variations of some nanoseconds due to multiple effects. These daily variations are known as diurnals, and that they increase the uncertainty of the time-distinction measurements. Since a time distinction is obtained by combining two time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements of two receivers, the receivers might contribute the diurnals if they're not reciprocal. To boost reciprocities, a TWSTFT receiver based mostly on the open-loop (OL) methodology was proposed and implemented on a software-defined radio receiver (SDR). For analysis, the OL-based SDR was compared with a typical receiver during a short-baseline TWSTFT experiment. The experimental results indicate that the diurnals disappeared with the OL-primarily based SDRs while a diurnal of ±zero.2 ns may be observed with typical receivers. These results imply that the diurnals partially depend on TOA measurement methods used in the TWSTFT receiver.

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