Observation of Dynamic Extinction Ratio and Bit Error Rate Degradation Due to Thermal Effects in Integrated Modulators


We experimentally demonstrate how the thermal crosstalk between active and passive parts limits the performance of integrated Mach–Zehnder (MZ) modulators operating in the radiofrequency regime. To guage the role of the space between active and passive parts, the MZs are placed at totally different distances with respect to a semiconductor optical amplifier that represents the warmth supply. The thermal crosstalk is quantified by measuring the consequences on the electro–optical response of MZ modulators thought-about as the test structure. Both extinction ratio and bit error rate degradation are measured. The proposed investigation allows the introduction of design rules, based mostly on the minimum distance between parts to ultimately avoid unwanted thermal effects. In keeping with the result provided by our analysis, we also show how the ER degradation will be recovered.

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