Temperature-Stable, Energy-Efficient, and High-Bit Rate Oxide-Confined 980-nm VCSELs for Optical Interconnects


We report 980-nm VCSELs that achieve temperature-stable, energy-economical, and high-bit rate data transmission concurrently. Oxide-aperture-dependent static characteristics and high-speed modulation properties are analyzed at area temperature and additionally at heat. It is demonstrated that VCSELs with oxide-aperture diameters smaller than ~5 μm are most appropriate to achieve energy-efficient, temperature-stable, and high-bit rate operation concurrently. We tend to demonstrate error-free knowledge transmission (defined as a small amount error ratio <; 1 × 10 -12) at 38 Gb/s from 25 to eighty five °C without any change of operating purpose and modulation condition by using VCSELs with oxide-aperture diameters smaller than 5 μm. For VCSELs smaller than ~7 μm, forty two Gb/s error-free data transmission at twenty five °C is achieved. Record low energy dissipation at 85 °C is achieved with our ~3 μm oxide-aperture diameter VCSELs. At room temperature, only 145, 147, and 217 fJ of dissipated heat energy per bit is required for thirty five, thirty eight, and forty two Gb/s error-free knowledge transmission. Every of these bit rates is a record low heat dissipation for 980-nm VCSELs. Our VCSELs are especially well suited to terribly short reach (<;a pair of m) optical interconnects in high-performance computers, for board-to-board and chip-to-chip input/output interfaces and data buses, and for on-chip integrated photonics.

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