3-D Scattering From a PEC Target Buried Beneath a Dielectric Rough Surface: An Efficient PILE-ACA Algorithm for Solving a Hybrid KA-EFIE Formulation


An efficient hybrid KA-EFIE formulation is deployed to research the electromagnetic (EM) scattering from a three-D perfectly electric conducting (PEC) object buried beneath a a pair of-D dielectric rough surface. In this approach, the electric and magnetic current densities on the rough surface are analytically obtained through the current-based mostly Kirchhoff approximation (KA), whereas the electric current density on the buried object is rigorously determined by solving the electrical field integral equation (EFIE) using the Galerkin’s technique of moments (MoM) with Rao–Wilton–Glisson (RWG) basis functions. The KA-EFIE matrix system is then efficiently solved by the iterative propagation-inside-layer-growth (PILE) methodology combined with the algebraic adaptive cross approximation (ACA). The present densities on the dielectric rough surface are thereafter used to handle the bistatic normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) patterns. The proposed hybrid approach allows a important reduction in computation time and memory requirements compared to the rigorous Poggio–Miller–Chang–Harrington–Wu (PMCHW)-EFIE formulation that requires solving a large MoM matrix equation. Moreover, the hybridization of the ACA algorithm with the PILE methodology improves any the computational cost due to the rank-deficient propriety of the coupling matrices. To validate the hybrid approach, we have a tendency to compare its results with those of the rigorous PMCHW-EFIE approach.

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