Energy-Efficient Bennett Clocking Scheme for Four-State Multiferroic Logic


Nanomagnets with biaxial magnetocrystalline aniso-tropy have four stable magnetization orientations that can encode four-state logic bits (00), (01), (11), and (10). Recently, a four-state nor gate derived from three such nanomagnets, interacting via dipole interaction, was proposed. Here, we devise a Bennett clocking scheme to propagate four-state logic bits unidirectionally between such gates. The nanomagnets are assumed to be made of two-phase strain-coupled magnetostrictive/piezoelectric multiferroic elements, such as nickel and lead zirconate titanate. A small voltage of 200 mV applied across the piezoelectric layer can generate enough mechanical stress in the magnetostrictive layer to rotate its magnetization away from one of the four stable orientations and implement Bennett clocking. We show that a particular sequence of positive and negative voltages will propagate four-state logic bits unidirectionally down a chain of such multiferroic nanomagnets for logic flow.

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