Design and Characterization of a Dual-Mode CMOS-MEMS Resonator for TCF Manipulation


A completely unique complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor-microelectormechanical systems (CMOS-MEMS) composite ring resonator capable of a dual-mode operation has been proposed to enable temperature coefficient of frequency (TCf$ manipulation. To check the temperature dependence between twin modes, two resonant modes of one resonator vibrating within the orthogonal axes (i.e., in-plane and out-of-plane) are chosen to enable a giant distinction of their TCf's while to not sacrifice its kind issue. By adjusting the constituent ratio and position of the composed metals and dielectrics through the computer-aided-style layout, totally different TCf's are successfully demonstrated in an exceedingly single CMOS-MEMS resonator. By concurrently measuring the TCf's of the in-plane and out-of-plane modes with a divider-based scaling concept, estimated minimum first- and second-order temperature sensitivities (zero.53 and 0.29 ppm/°C2, respectively) of their beat frequency will be obtained under correct scaling numbers for temperature-compensated clock applications. This paper also suggests that the primary-order temperature coefficient of the beat frequency might be maximized underneath proper divider numbers. The method variations of the CMOS-MEMS resonators in terms of frequency, quality factor, and transmission magnitude also are intensively studied with an applicable amount of devices. The characterization result shows 1-σ frequency variations of two,574 and 5,414 ppm for in-plane and out-of-plane modes, respectively.

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