Integrating electrospray into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic systems supports applications in diverse fields from biotechnology to aerospace. Electrospray also functions as a production tool, allowing for novel methods of MEMS fabrication. This review covers the three most significant applications of electrospray in MEMS and microfluidic systems technology: 1) as an integral part of a microfluidic device, most notably electrospray emitters for coupling a microfluidic chip to a mass spectrometer; 2) as a method for fabricating and manufacturing MEMS; and 3) for micropropulsion in aerospace applications using MEMS-based emitters. Perspectives on future research directions and opportunities are provided.
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