An Integer Linear Programming Approach for Radio-Based Localization of Shipping Containers in the Presence of Incomplete Proximity Information


The most advanced solutions that are currently adopted in ports and terminals use technologies primarily based on radio frequency identification (RFID) and the global Positioning System (GPS) to spot and localize shipping containers in the yard. Nevertheless, because of the restrictions of these solutions, the position of containers is still littered with errors, and it can't be determined in real time. During this paper, a nonconventional approach is presented: Each container is supplied with nodes that use wireless communication to detect neighbor containers and to send proximity information to a base station. At the base station, geometrical constraints and proximity data are combined to see the positions of containers. Missing info thanks to faulty nodes is tolerated by modeling geometrical constraints as an integer linear programming problem. Numerical simulations show that most of the containers can be localized, even when the number of nodes that are tormented by faults is on the order of thirty%.

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