Hall-Effect Sensor Fault Detection, Identification, and Compensation in Brushless DC Drives


During this paper, binary Hall-effect sensor faults are investigated in rectangular-current-fed brushless dc (BLDC) drives and a terribly effective methodology for his or her detection, identification, and compensation is explored. It's shown that these faults cause erroneous commutation, typically resulting in unstable operation. Employing a fault detection and identification technique proposed by the authors in a recent paper on low-value field-oriented drives, it is potential to pinpoint the faulty sensors. In this paper, it's demonstrated that the destabilizing result of those faults on motion-state estimation will be compensated for in any position and speed estimation algorithm, as long as it's properly readapted. To this end, it's shown how to incorporate such fault-compensation in three state-of-the-art estimation algorithms: (one) the zeroth-order algorithm (ZOA); (two) the hybrid observer (HO); and (three) the vector-tracking observer (VTO). Comparative experimental tests are performed and it is verified that stable operation is achieved with three, 2, or only a single Hall-impact sensor functioning properly. These results show that the classical BLDC drive with 3 Hall-impact sensors has an inherent double redundancy to position-sensor faults. With the proposed technique, this property can be exploited in systems that need very high reliability, such as in aerospace and automotive applications. Redundancy will be increased, using more than three Hall-result sensors; reduced using 2 sensors; or eliminated employing a single sensor, in ultra low-cost applications where redundancy is not a requirement.

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