Spectrum Coordination in Energy-Efficient Cognitive Radio Networks


Device coordination in open spectrum systems may be a difficult downside, particularly since users expertise varying spectrum availability over time and in several locations. During this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach that allows cognitive radio (CR) pairs, namely the primary user (PU) and also the secondary user (SU), to update their transmission power and frequencies simultaneously. Specifically, we tend to address a Stackelberg game model in that individual users attempt to hierarchically access to the wireless spectrum whereas maximizing their energy potency. A thorough analysis of the existence, uniqueness, and characterization of the Stackelberg equilibrium (SE) is conducted. In explicit, we have a tendency to show that a spectrum coordination naturally occurs when each actors in the system decide sequentially regarding their power and their transmitting carriers. So, spectrum sensing in such a scenario seems to be a easy detection of the presence/absence of a transmission on every subband. We have a tendency to also show that when users expertise terribly completely different channel gains on their two carriers, they'll opt for to transmit on the same carrier at the SE as this contributes enough energy potency to outweigh the interference degradation caused by the mutual transmission. Then, we tend to provide an algorithmic analysis on how the PU and also the SU can reach such a spectrum coordination using an applicable learning process. We have a tendency to validate our results through in depth simulations and compare the proposed algorithm to some typical eventualities, together with the non-cooperative case in the work of Meshkati et al. and also the throughput-based mostly-utility systems. Sometimes, it's shown that the proposed Stackelberg decision approach optimizes the energy efficiency whereas still maximizing the throughput at the equilibrium.

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