Proposed is a symbol-based decision-directed algorithm for blind equalisation of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals using a decision feedback scheme. Independently of QAM order, it presents: (i) an error equal to zero when the equaliser output coincides with the transmitted signal; (ii) simultaneous recovery of the modulus and phase of the signal; (iii) a misadjustment close to that of the normalised least-mean squares algorithm; (iv) fast convergence; and (v) the avoidance of degenerative solutions. Additionally, its stability is ensured when the step-size is properly chosen.
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