Nonlinear Attosecond Metrology by Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses


For the future progress of nonlinear attosecond science, one among the most necessary problems is the development of high-energy isolated attosecond pulse sources. During this paper, we tend to review our analysis on the energy-scaling technique for isolated attosecond pulse generation, that combines infrared two-color gating and an energy-scaling methodology of high-order harmonic generation. By establishing the robust energy-scaling methodology, the most pulse energy of the isolated attosecond pulse reaches 1.three μJ/pulse within the XUV region, which is almost one hundred-fold more than the values ever reported before. The heart beat period of this isolated attosecond pulse is directly measured to be 500 as by the autocorrelation methodology using the nonlinear interaction of N2. This nonlinear experiment clearly shows that our developed isolated attosecond pulse has enough pulse energy to make a breakthrough for nonlinear attosecond metrology plus for attosecond-pump/attosecond-probe experiments investigating electronic processes. Likewise, we have a tendency to more extend the high-energy harmonic continuum by using the infrared 2-color gating methodology up to the soft-x-ray region. With the aim to temporally characterize an isolated attosecond pulse in the soft-x-ray region, we have a tendency to demonstrate the primary observation of higher than-threshold ionization of He with 2-photon absorption of multiple higher harmonics in the soft-x-ray region.

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