An ultrathin equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) $hbox{Al}_{2}hbox{O}_{3}/ hbox{GeO}_{x}/hbox{Ge}$ gate stack with a superior $ hbox{GeO}_{x}/hbox{Ge}$ metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) interface and p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (pMOSFETs) using this gate stack have been fabricated by a plasma post oxidation method. The properties of the $hbox{GeO}_{x}/ hbox{Ge}$ MOS interfaces are systemically investigated, and it is revealed that there is a universal relationship between the interface state density $(D_{rm it})$ at the $hbox{GeO}_{x}/hbox{Ge}$ interface and the $hbox{GeO}_{x}$ interfacial layer thickness. Ge pMOSFETs on a (100) Ge substrate using the $hbox{Al}_{2}hbox{O}_{3}/hbox{GeO}_{x}/hbox{Ge}$ gate stack have been demonstrated with an EOT down to 0.98 nm. It is found that the Ge pMOSFETs exhibit the peak hole mobility values of 515, 466, and 401 $hbox{cm}^{2}/ hbox{V}cdot hbox{s}$ at an EOT of 1.18, 1.06, and 0.98 nm, respectively, which has much weaker EOT dependence than the trend of the hole mobility values reported so far, because of low $D_{rm it}$ of the present gate stack in the ultrathin EOT region of $sim$1 nm.

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