Porphyrin Self-Assembled Monolayer as a Copper Diffusion Barrier for Advanced CMOS Technologies


This paper investigates properties of zinc porphyrin self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a Cu diffusion barrier for advanced back-end complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technologies. The SAM layers are integrated with various interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) like HSQ and black diamond (BD). Monolayer formation on ILDs was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle, FTIR, and UV–Vis techniques. Degradation study of the Cu/ILD and Cu/SAM/ILD systems was performed using stress-induced $CV$ and $IV$ at elevated temperatures. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry was utilized to establish effectiveness of those films as Cu diffusion barriers. The results indicate that SAM films, additionally to improving the ILD's moisture resistance, might facilitate in thinning down the existing barrier layer thickness on the low- $k$ porous ILDs. Result of SAM layers on the mechanical properties of BD film was studied using nanoindentation.

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