Required Conditions for Photon-Counting Image Sensors


The specified conditions of photon counting and single-photon detection are theoretically derived for four totally different approaches: 1) photon counting and single-shot imaging; 2) photon counting and multiple-shot imaging; three) single-photon detection and single-shot imaging; and four) single-photon detection and multiple-shot imaging. The foremost necessary parameter for all approaches is effective quantum efficiency (EQE), which is defined as QE multiplied by the temporal aperture ratio. To comprehend photon counting and single-shot imaging, EQE should be $sim$one. Even if $hboxEQE = hbox0.95$, it cannot be realized with a 90percent confidence level, whereas single-photon detection and single-shot imaging will be realized. When objects are stationary scenes or repeated phenomena, multiple-shot imaging is effective. The signal-to-noise ratio for multiple-shot imaging is increased with the sq. root of the shot variety. The input-referred noise in the amount of detected photoelectrons is expected to be but zero.3e to understand electron counting, that is required for photon counting and single-photon detection. single-photon avalanche photodiodes and electron multiplication CCDs have achieved it, and “traditional” image sensors, that don't use avalanche multiplication, can additionally realize it.

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