Selective-Area High-Quality Germanium Growth for Monolithic Integrated Optoelectronics


Selective-area germanium (Ge) layer on silicon (Si) is desired to realize the advanced Ge devices integrated with Si very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) components. We demonstrate the area-dependent high-quality Ge growth on Si substrate through $hbox{SiO}_{2}$ windows. The combination of area-dependent growth and multistep deposition/hydrogen annealing cycles has effectively reduced the surface roughness and the threading dislocation density. Low root-mean-square surface roughness of 0.6 nm is confirmed by atomic-force-microscope analysis. Low defect density in the area-dependent grown Ge layer is measured to be as low as $hbox{1} times hbox{10}^{7} hbox{cm}^{-2}$ by plan-view transmission-electron-miscroscope analysis. In addition, the excellent metal–semiconductor–metal photodiode characteristics are shown on the grown Ge layer to open up a possibility to merge Ge optoelectronics with Si VLSI.

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