Designing Linear PAs at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies Using Volterra Series Analysis


Power amplifiers (PAs) at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies are required for delivering high output linear power whereas being efficient; however, their performance is severely stricken by the scaled semiconductor technology and also the operating frequency. To improve the linearity of mm-wave PAs, it is counseled that an external linearization technique like predistortion be used. The PA presented in this paper uses adaptive predistortion (APD). The APD linearization technique was developed using the Volterra series analysis on the silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor. The Volterra series analysis was used to identify and characterize the third-order intermodulation distortion parts. The PA uses a single-ended common-emitter topology. It consists of 3 stages biased in the class AB mode. The PA and APD were designed using the a hundred thirty-nm SiGe bipolar and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor method. The PA and APD achieve an optimum third-order intermodulation reduction of ten dB and an improved linear output power of 2.5 dBm.

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