PROJECT TITLE :
Photoplethysmography-Based Algorithm for Detection of Cardiogenic Output During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Detecting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is challenging, time consuming, and requires interrupting chest compressions. Based on automated-CPR porcine data, we have developed an algorithm to support ROSC detection, which detects cardiogenic output during chest compressions via a photoplethysmography (PPG) signal. The algorithm can detect palpable and impalpable spontaneous pulses. A compression-free PPG signal which estimates the spontaneous pulse waveform, was obtained by subtracting the compression component, modeled by a harmonic series. The fundamental frequency of this series was the compression rate derived from the transthoracic impedance signal measured between the defibrillation pads. The amplitudes of the harmonic components were obtained via a least mean-square algorithm. The frequency spectrum of the compression-free PPG signal was estimated via an autoregressive model, and the relationship between the spectral peaks was analyzed to identify the pulse rate (PR). Resumed cardiogenic output could also be detected from a decrease in the baseline of the PPG signal, presumably caused by a redistribution of blood volume to the periphery. The algorithm indicated cardiogenic output when a PR or a redistribution of blood volume was detected. The algorithm indicated cardiogenic output with 94% specificity and 69% sensitivity compared to the retrospective ROSC detection of nine clinicians. Results showed that ROSC detection can be supported by combining the compression-free PPG signal with an indicator based on the detected PR and redistribution of blood volume.
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