An Energy Tank-Based Interactive Control Architecture for Autonomous and Teleoperated Robotic Surgery


Introducing some kind of autonomy in robotic surgery is being considered by the medical community to better exploit the potential of robots within the operating space. However, important technological steps need to occur before even the littlest autonomous task is ready to be presented to the regulatory authorities. During this paper, we have a tendency to address the initial steps of this method, in explicit the event of control ideas satisfying the basic safety needs of robotic surgery, i.e., providing the robot with the mandatory dexterity and a stable and swish behavior of the surgical tool. Two specific things are thought-about: the automatic adaptation to changing tissue stiffness and also the transition from autonomous to teleoperated mode. These situations replicate real-life cases when the surgeon adapts the stiffness of her/his arm to penetrate tissues of different consistency and when, thanks to an sudden event, the surgeon has to take over the management of the surgical robot. To handle the primary case, we propose a passivity-based interactive management architecture that allows us to implement stable time-varying interactive behaviors. For the second case, we present a 2-layered bilateral management architecture that ensures a stable behavior during the transition between autonomy and teleoperation and, once the switch, limits the effect of initial mismatch between master and slave poses. The proposed solutions are validated in the realistic surgical state of affairs developed within the EU-funded I-SUR project, employing a surgical robot prototype specifically designed for the autonomous execution of surgical tasks just like the insertion of needles into the human body.

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