Maximum Achievable Efficiency in Near-Field Coupled Power-Transfer Systems


Wireless power transfer is commonly realized by means of near-field inductive coupling and is critical to many existing and emerging applications in biomedical engineering. This paper presents a closed form analytical solution for the optimum load that achieves the maximum possible power efficiency under arbitrary input impedance conditions based on the general two-port parameters of the network. The two-port approach allows one to predict the power transfer efficiency at any frequency, any type of coil geometry and through any type of media surrounding the coils. Moreover, the results are applicable to any form of passive power transfer such as provided by inductive or capacitive coupling. Our results generalize several well-known special cases. The formulation allows the design of an optimized wireless power transfer link through biological media using readily available EM simulation software. The proposed method effectively decouples the design of the inductive coupling two-port from the problem of loading and power amplifier design. Several case studies are provided for typical applications.

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