On User Effects in MIMO Handset Antennas Designed Using Characteristic Modes


The Theory of Characteristic Modes (TCM) has been applied to design high-performance multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennas for mobile terminals. However, existing studies target free-space (FS) performance, which is principally irrelevant in real usage. This letter investigates the performances of two TCM-based MIMO terminal antenna styles in seven realistic user scenarios for frequencies below 1 GHz. Full-wave simulation results indicate that the TCM styles can considerably outperform standard styles in user eventualities that require smart MIMO performance. Higher multiplexing efficiency (ME), by up to 3 dB, was recorded for a TCM design relative to a typical terminal in a two-hand scenario. Performance benefits of the TCM styles were mainly thanks to lower correlation also higher impedance matching and coupling potency. Moreover, a combined usage study primarily based on weighted ME over totally different user cases established that on average TCM styles outperform typical styles by up to 1.half dozen dB. This suggests that the TCM designs not only offer superior performance in FS, but conjointly in realistic user scenarios.

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